La restauración de la «continuidad ininterrumpida de nuestra historia»: la conmemoración de la Gran Guerra en el anterior Imperio Ruso

David Kaufman

Resumen


Una combinación de factores ha asegurado que la conmemoración de la Primera Guerra Mundial en las tierras del anterior imperio ruso se haya quedado atrás con respecto al resto de Europa.El hecho de que el conflicto desembocó en el colapso del régimen zarista y su reemplazo por un estado bolchevique centró la atención en otro sitio. Las exigencias inmediatas de los enfrentamientos en la Guerra Civil y posteriormente la muerte de Lenin ofrecieron un marcado contrarrelatofrente a la historia principal europea de dolor, conmemoración y pérdida. Los veteranos de la «guerra imperialista» encajaron mal en el nuevo estado Soviético durante los años entre guerras donde, bajo Stalin, se hicieron difíciles incluso las conmemoraciones privadas. A pesar del regreso parcial a las tradiciones nacionales rusas durante la «Gran Guerra Patriótica», esto aseguró en gran parte que la derrota del nazismo sería la experiencia definitoria de Rusia durante el siglo, legitimando el estado Soviético y confirmando su estado como potencia global. Tras 1989-1991 la memoria de la Gran Guerra resurgió de esta sombra, más claramente como la comadrona de la independencia nacional en los estados sucesores al imperio zarista, y con el regreso del estado ruso esto ha continuado, perpetuando la narrativa de que su experiencia no es la típica del resto de Europa.


Palabras clave


; conmemoración; Rusia; Gran Guerra; independencia

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.14422/cir.i02.y2015.003

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