Reafirmar la hegemonía en Asia Central: las políticas rusas en Kirguistán tras 2010

David Lewis

Resumen


Aunque ha habido un foco internacional considerable en las enérgicas políticas exteriores rusas en Ucrania y el Cáucaso meridional, la creciente influencia de Moscú en los antiguos estados soviéticos de Asia Central ha recibido mucha menos atención. El cambio en la política tras 2010 ha sido especialmente exitoso en el desarrollo de una relación mucho más profunda de Rusia con Kirguistán, un estado que previamente había desarrollado una política exterior moderadamente pro-occidental y que juega un papel estratégico clave en la región. Kirguistán ha rebajado los lazos políticos y de seguridad con los estados occidentales, se ha unido a la Unión Económica Euroasiática (UEE) dirigida por Rusia y ha desarrollado vínculos de seguridad más estrechos en la Organización del Tratado de Seguridad Colectiva (OTSC). Este artículo analiza estos cambios en la política y califica la nueva actitud rusa como «hegemónica», señalando tanto el dominio militar, político y económico ruso en la relación como el considerable apoyo popular en Kirguistán para tener vínculos más estrechos con Moscú. La política rusa ha confiado en un acercamiento integrado a la política exterior que incluye iniciativas en los campos de seguridad, economía y política, así como formas de «soft power» e influencia cultural. El caso de Kirguistán sugiere que estudiar la política rusa dentro del marco de la hegemonía es un modo útil de analizar tanto el potencial de tener una mayor influencia como las considerables restricciones que se encuentran los responsables de las políticas rusos en el área de Eurasia.


Palabras clave


Política exterior rusa; Kirguistán; Asia Central; hegemonía; seguridad regional

Texto completo:

PDF (English)

Referencias


Allison, R. (2004). Strategic reassertion in Russia’s Central Asia policy. International Affairs. Vol. 80(2), pp. 277-93.

Antoniades, A. (2008). From “Theories of Hegemony” to “Hegemony Analysis” in International Relations. Paper presented at 49th ISA Annual Convention, San Francisco, 28 March.

Blank, S. (2015, January 9). Russia’s Waning Soft Power in Central Asia. The Diplomat. Retrieved from http://thediplomat.com/2015/01/russias-waning-soft-power-in-central- asia/

Butrin, D. & Yedovina, T. (2015, May 12). По дороге в союз свернули на Шелковый путь. Kommersant. Retrieved from http://www.kommersant.ru/doc/2724437

Casey, M. (2014, November 21). Kyrgyzstan: A Reluctant Accession to the EEU. The Diplomat. Retrieved from http://thediplomat.com/2014/11/kyrgyzstan-to-reluctantly-join-the eeu/

Chatham House. (2014). Russian influence abroad: Non-state actors and propaganda. Chatham House, 24 October 2014.

Clark, I. (2011). Hegemony in International Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Clover, C. (2010, June 15). Moscow wary of appeal to intervene in conflict. Financial Times. Cohen, A. (2010, June 15). The Chaos in Central Asia; The Obama administration is partly to blame for the destabilization of Kyrgyzstan. Wall Street Journal (Online). New York.

Cooley, A. (2012). Great Games, Local Rules: The New Great Power Contest in Central Asia. New York: Oxford University Press.

Cooley, A. & Laruelle, M. (2013). The Changing Logic of Russian Strategy in Central Asia: From Privileged Sphere to Divide and Rule? PONARS Eurasia Policy Memo No. 261, July. Retrieved from http://www.ponarseurasia.org/memo/changing-logic-russian-

strategy-central-asia-privileged-sphere-divide-and-rule

Cox, R. (1993). Gramsci, Hegemony and International Relations: an Essay in Method. In S. Gill (Ed.), Gramsci, Historical Materialism and International Relations (pp. 29-66). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

De Haas, M. (2015). The Collective Security Treaty Organization: On its way to a “NATO of the East”? Central Asia Policy Brief. No. 26, May.

Deyermond, R. (2009). Matrioshka hegemony? Multilevelled hegemonic competition and security in postSoviet Central Asia. Review of International Studies. Vol. 35(1), January, pp. 151-173.

Eurasianet. (2012, April 19). Kyrgyzstan: Moscow Vexed by Bishkek’s Efforts to Play the Field. Eurasianet. Retrieved from http://www.eurasianet.org/node/65290

Rickleton, C. (2013, April 15). Kyrgyzstan: Bishkek’s Hydropower Hopes Hinge on Putin’s Commitment. Eurasianet. Retrieved from http://www.eurasianet.org/node/66883

Financial Times. (2010, June 15). Kyrgyz dilemma. Financial Times.

Frazier, D. & Stewart-Ingersoll, R. (2010). Regional powers and security: A framework for understanding order within regional security complexes. European Journal of International Relations

XX(X), pp. 1-23.

Gabuyev, A. & Konstantinov, A. (2014, December 16). ШОС получит расчет в юанях. Kommersant. Retrieved from http://www.kommersant.ru/doc/2634265

Garzón Pereira, J. F. (2014). Hierarchical Regional Orders: An Analytical Framework. Journal of Policy Modeling. Vol. 36(1), pp. S26–S46.

Gazprom International. (2015, January 30). Gazprom will increase gas service in Kyrgyzstan by 60%. Gazprom International. Retrieved from http://gazprom-international.com/en/newsmedia/articles/gazprom-will-increase-gas-service-kyrgyzstan-60

Gessen, M. (2014, October 5). Putin speak in Kyrgyzstan. New York Times.

Gladilin, I. (2013, February 27). Россия поставила в Киргизии на кон свою репутацию.Km.ru. Retrieved from http://www.km.ru/world/2013/02/27/otnosheniya-rossii-s-

respublikami-byvshego-sssr/705022-rossiya-postavila-v-kirgizii

Golts, A. (2010, June 15). A Chance for KSOR. Missed? Yezhednevny zhurnal, via BBC Monitoring Former Soviet Union.

ICG. (2010). The pogroms in Kyrgyzstan. Brussels/Bishkek: International Crisis Group, Asia Report 193.

Ikenberry, J. & Kupchan, C. (1990). Socialization and Hegemonic Power. International Organization. Vol. 44(3), pp. 283-315.

Interfax. (2010, June 12). Временное правительство Киргизии просит Россию рассмотреть возможность введения в Ош третьих сил. Interfax. Retrieved from http://www.interfax.ru/russia/news.asp?id=140964

Kabar. (2013, December 11). Президент А.Атамбаев: Кыргызстан будет участвовать в интеграционныхпроцессах только с учетом национальных интересов. Kabar. Retrieved from http://kabar.kg/rus/politics/full/68047

Kalybekova, A. (2013, July 31). Kyrgyzstan: Is Gazprom Deal a Blessing or Curse for Bishkek?Eurasianet. Retrieved from http://www.eurasianet.org/node/67327

Kazantsev, A. (2010). Russian policy in Central Asia in 1991–2010: a disappearing power? EUI Working Paper, RSCAS 2010/59, European University Institute.

Kloop.kg. (2015, March 31). Таможенный кодекс ЕАЭС начнет действовать с начала 2017 года. Kloop.kg. Retrieved from http://kloop.kg/blog/2015/03/31/tamozhennyj-kodeks-

eaes-nachnet-dejstvovat-s-nachala-2017-goda/

Kloop.kg. (2014, September 14). Вступление Кыргызстана в Таможенный союз: собираем мнения о плюсах, минусах, возможностях и угрозах в единой таблице.

Kloop.kg. Retrieved from http://kloop.kg/blog/2014/09/11/vstuplenie-ky-rgy-zstana-v-tamozhenny-j-soyuz-plyusy-minusy-vozmozhnosti-i-ugrozy-v-edinoj-tablitse/

Kommersant. (2014, August 22). Сергей Лавров заявил, что на поддержку экономики Киргизии Россия выделит $500 млн. Kommersant. Retrieved from http://www. kommersant.ru/doc/2543163

Kommersant. (2014, December 30). «Газпром» возобновилпоставкигазанаюгКиргизии. Kommersant. Retrieved from http://www.kommersant.ru/doc/2643644

Kommersant. (2014, November 24). РоссияиКиргизиясоздадутФондразвитияобъемом $1 млрд. Kommersant. Retrieved from http://www.kommersant.ru/doc/2618038

Kommersant. (2015, February 17). Китай двинулся по Шелковому пути’, Kommersant. Retrieved from http://www.kommersant.ru/doc/2669822

Krause, K. (1991). Military Statecraft: Power and Influence in Soviet and American Arms Transfer Relations. International Studies Quarterly. Vol. 35, pp. 313-336.

Kremlin.ru. (2011). Protocol on amendments to Collective Security Treaty. Kremlin.ru. Retrieved from http://eng.kremlin.ru/news/2960

Kucera, J. (2014, December 9). Russia Reinforces Air Base In Kyrgyzstan With New Attack Jets. Eurasianet. Retrieved from http://www.eurasianet.org/node/7126

Kucera, J. (2013, July 11). With Massive Russian Military Aid, Is Kyrgyzstan Becoming A ClientState? Eurasianet. Retrieved from http://www.eurasianet.org/node/67239

Kucera, J. (2014, June 25). CSTO: We Complement Eurasian Union, Won’t Join It – Yet. Eurasianet. Retrieved from http://www.eurasianet.org/node/68751

Leitchtova, M. (2014). Misunderstanding Russia: Russian Foreign Policy and the West. Farnham: Ashgate.

Lelik, A. (2015, January 7). Kyrgyzstan’s Migrants Wary on Russian Economy, but Excited by Closer Ties. Eurasianet. Retrieved from http://www.eurasianet.org/node/71546

Lenta.ru. (2010, June 12). Россия сочла беспорядки в Оше внутренним конфликтом Киргизии. Lenta.ru. Retrieved from http://lenta.ru/news/2010/06/12/refuse/

Liik, K. (2014). Introduction: Russia’s pivot to (Eur)asia. In K. Liik, Russia’s Pivot to Eurasia (pp. 5-16). European Council on Foreign Relations, May 2014.

Lukyanov, F. (2014). Building Eurasia and defining Russia. In K. Liik, Russia’s Pivot to Eurasia (pp. 18-25). European Council on Foreign Relations, May 2014.

Matveeva, A. (2011). Violence in Kyrgyzstan, vacuum in the region: the case for Russia-EU joint crisis management. Civil Society & Human Security Research Unit Working Paper. London: London

School of Economics.

Matveeva, A., Savin, I. & Faizullaev, B. (2012). Kyrgyzstan: Tragedy in the South. Ethnopolitics Papers. Nº 17 (April).

Matveeva, A. (2013). Russia’s changing security role in Central Asia. European Security. Vol. 22(4), pp. 478-499.

Melvin, N. (2011). Promoting a Stable and Multiethnic Kyrgyzstan: Overcoming the Causes and Legacies of Violence. Occasional Paper Series (3: OSI Central Eurasia Project).

Mikhailov, G. (2015, April 9). Бишкек рассчитывает на длинные российские кредиты.Nezavisimaya gazeta. Retrieved from http://www.ng.ru/cis/2015-04-09/6_bishkek.html

Minin, S. (2010, June 16). Киргизия: влезатьилиневлезать? Nezavisimaya gazeta. Retrieved from http://www.ng.ru/columnist/2010-06-16/100_kyrgyzzone.html

Muhin, V. (2013, July 1). ОДКБнеспешитспеременами. Nezavisimaya gazeta. Retrieved from http://www.ng.ru/politics/2013-07-01/3_odkb.html

M-Vektor. (2010). The barometer of social attitudes. Poll conducted in April 2010, p. 8. Retrieved from www.m-vektor.com

Nixey, J. (2012). The Long Goodbye: Waning Russian Influence in the South Caucasus and Central Asia. Chatham House Briefing Paper, June.

Nikitina, Y. (2014). CSTO: Through the Looking Glass. Problems of Post-Communism. May/ June.

Nye, J. (2004). Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics. Public Affairs: New York.

Nygren, B. (2008). The Rebuilding of Greater Russia: Putin’s Foreign Policy Towards the CIS Countries. London: Routledge.

Putin, V. (2004). Address at the Plenary Session of the Russian Federation Ambassadors, Moscow. Foreign Ministry. Retrieved from http://eng.kremlin.ru/transcripts/7615

RIAC. (2013). Russia’s Interests in Central Asia: Contents, Perspectives, Limitations. Moscow: Russian Council for Foreign Affairs. Retrieved from http://russiancouncil.eng/common/

upload/RIAC_Central_Asia.pdf

Rickleton, C. (2014, April 16). Kyrgyzstan: Russian “Information Wars” Heating Up. Eurasianet. Retrieved from http://www.eurasianet.org/node/68280

Rozanov, A. A. & Dovgan, E. F. (2010). Collective Security Treaty Organisation, 2002-2009. Geneva/Minsk, June.

Saari, S. (2014). Russia’s Post-Orange Revolution Strategies to Increase its Influence in Former Soviet Republics: Public Diplomacy po russkii. Europe-Asia Studies. Vol. 66(1), pp. 50-66.

Sakwa, R. (2014). Putin Redux: Power and Contradiction in Contemporary Russia. London: Routledge.

Satke, R. (2014, August 14). Will Sanctions Stymie Russia’s Resurgence in Central Asia? The Diplomat. Retrieved from http://thediplomat.com/2014/08/will-sanctions-stymie-russias-resurgence-in-central-asia/

Satke, R. (2014, December 7). Russian Intelligence in Kyrgyzstan, Cold War Redux. The Diplomat. Retrieved from http://thediplomat.com/2014/12/russian-intelligence-in- kyrgyzstan-cold-war-redux/

Sputnik. (2014, December 10). On December 10, Sputnik launches its multimedia hub in Kyrgyzstan. Sputniknews. Retrieved from http://sputniknews.com/agency_ news/20141210/1015685102.html

Soldatkin, V. & Dzyubenko, O. (2013, July 29). Gazprom takes over Kyrgyz gas network, vows stable supply. Reuters. Retrieved from http://uk.reuters.com/article/2013/07/29/gaskyrgyzstan-gazpom idUKL6N0FZ0WN20130729

Soldatov, A. (2013, March 18). The FSB Opens a New Foreign Front. Moscow Times. Retrieved from http://www.themoscowtimes.com/opinion/article/the-fsb-opens-a-new-foreign- front/477005.html

Sözen, A. (2010). A Theoretical Evaluation of Different Faces of Power: US-Turkey Relations Towards Iraq. Uluslararası İlişkiler. Vol. 6(24) (Winter), pp. 55-78.

The Moscow Times. (2013, July 3). Kyrgyzstan to Sell Torpedo Factory Coveted by Russia.The Moscow Times. Retrieved from http://www.themoscowtimes.com/business/article/kyrgyzstan-to-sell-torpedo-factory-coveted-by-russia/482650.html

Toktomushev, K. (2015). Regime Security and Kyrgyz Foreign Policy, PhD Dissertation. University of Exeter.

Toktonaliev, T. (2014, July 5). Kyrgyzstan: Civil Rights in Reverse Gear. RCA 740. Retrieved from https://iwpr.net/global-voices/kyrgyzstan-civil-rights-reverse-gear

Tolstrup, J. (2009). Studying a negative external actor: Russia’s management of stability and instability in the “Near Abroad”. Democratization. Vol. 16(5), pp. 922-944.

Trilling, D. (2014, August 11). Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan Full of Putin Fans, New Poll Says.Eurasianet. Retrieved from http://www.eurasianet.org/node/69471

Trilling, D. (2014, December 1). Kyrgyzstan Debates Russian-Style “Foreign Agents” Law. Eurasianet. Retrieved from http://www.eurasianet.org/node/71131

Troitsky, E. (2012). Turmoil in Kyrgyzstan: A Challenge to Russian Foreign Policy. The Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Occasional Paper No. 8. Retrieved from http://www.ui.se/eng/upl/files/79297.pdf

Toursunov, H. (2010, March 25). Leaving Home to Go Home. Transitions Online. Retrieved from http://www.tol.org/client/article/21298-leaving-home-to-go-home.html

Tsygankov, A. P. (2006). If not by tanks, then by banks? The role of soft power in Putin’s foreign policy. Europe-Asia Studies. Vol. 58 (7), pp. 1079-1099.

UNICEF. (2011). Results of the Joint Projects in South Kyrgyzstan. Unicef. Retrieved from http://www.unicef.org/kyrgyzstan/media_18771.html

Yedovina, T. (2014). Россия поможет Киргизии пережить трудности интеграции.Kommersant.ru. Retrieved from http://www.kommersant.ru/doc/2618121

Yoruk, Z. & Vatikiotis, P. (2013). Soft Power or Illusion of Hegemony: The Case of the Turkish Soap Opera “Colonialism”. International Journal of Communication. Vol. 7, pp. 2361-2385.

Yurgens, I. (Ed.). (2011). ОДКБ: Ответственная безопаснос. Moscow: INSOR, August. Retrieved from http://www.insor-russia.ru/files/ODKB.pdf




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14422/cir.i03.y2015.005

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.




Licencia Creative Commons
Comillas Journal of International Relations (ISSN 2386-5776) editada por Universidad Pontificia Comillas se encuentra bajo una Licencia Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 3.0 Unported.

  

Comillas Journal of International Relations

Universidad Pontificia Comillas

Departamento de Relaciones Internacionales | Facultad de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales

Universidad de Comillas, 3-5 - 28049 Madrid

Tel. +34 91 734 39 50 | E-mail: comillas_jir@comillas.edu