Utilidad del Ciclo de Vida del Producto: ¿Debemos reabrir el debate ante el acortamiento de la vida de los productos en el mercado?

Marta Muñiz Ferrer

Resumen


El Ciclo de Vida del Producto (CVP) es uno de los conceptos de marketing  más utilizados y, a su vez, más criticados. La falta de resultados concluyentes llevó, en los 90, a abandonar  el debate  sobre su utilidad en la práctica empresarial. Ahora, la cuestión  se ha retomado como consecuencia del acortamiento  de la vida de los productos y de las mejoras en los sistemas de información. Este artículo  revisa aquellos aspectos que llevaron  a muchos autores a confiar  en el CVP para la toma de decisiones empresariales así como a otros a desestimarlo para tal fin. El objetivo  es determinar  si el nuevo contexto empresarial favorece la consideración del CVP como un instrumento válido para definir  estrategias de marketing o si, por el contrario,  las limitaciones identificadas en décadas anteriores  se mantie-nen en la actualidad.

Palabras clave


Ciclo de Vida del Producto (CVP), estrategia de marketing, herramienta predictiva

Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


ABELL, D. (1980). Defining the Business: The Starting Point of Strategic Planning, Englewood Cliffs NJ, Prentice Hall, 1980. Citado por Day (1981).

ADLER, L. (1966). “Time Lag in New Product Development”, Journal of Marketing, January 1966, Vol. 30, Issue 1, pp. 17-21.

ANDERSON, C. Y ZEITHAML, C. (1984). “Stage of the Product Life Cycle, Business Strategy and Business Performance”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 27, March 1984, pp. 5-24.

ANSOFF, I. (1965). Corporate Strategy: An Analitic Aproach to Business Policy of Growth and Expansion, McGraw-Hill, 1965. Citado por Pearce II (1982).

ANSOFF, I. Y MCDONELL, E. (1990). Implanting Strategic Management, 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall Europe, 1990.

BASS, F. (1980). “The Relationship Between Diffusion Curves, Experience Curves and Demand Elasticities, for Customer Durable Technologicasl Innovations” Journal of Business, Vol. 53, Issue 3, Julio 1980, pp.51-69.

BOOZ, ALLEN AND HAMILTON (1966). Management of New Products, Booz, Allen and Hamilton, Inc. 1966. Citado por Cunningham (1969).

BUZZELL, R. Y GALE, B.(1987). The PIMS Principles: Linking Strategy to Performance, New York, The Free Press, 1987.

BUZZELL, R. Y NOURSE, R. (1968). The Product Life Cycle in Grocery Manufacturing in the United States, ed. Gary A, Marple and Harry B. Wissman, New York: Frederick A. Praeger, Inc. 1968. Citado por Meenaghan y Turnbull (1981).

BUZZELL,R. Y SCHOEFLER, B. (1974). “Impact of Strategic Planning on Profit Performance”, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 52, Issue 2, March-April 1974, pp. 137-145.

BUZZELL, R. Y WIERSEMA, F. (1982). “Estrategias eficaces para aumentar la cuota de mercado”, Harvard-Deusto Business Review, 3er Trimestre 1982, pp. 4-17.

COX, W.E. (1967). “Product Life Cycles as Marketing Models”, Journal of Business, Vol. 40, Nº 4, October 1967, pp.375-383.

CUNNINGHAM, M. (1969). “The application of product life cycles to corporate strategy: some research findings”, British Journal of Marketing, Vol. 3, Spring 1969, pp. 32-44.

DAY, G. (1981). “The product Life Cycle: Analysis and Applications Issues”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 45, Fall 1981, pp.60-67.

DAY, G. Y MONTGOMERY, D. (1999). “Charting New Directions for Marketing”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 63, 1999, pp. 3-13.

DHALLA, N. Y YUSPEH, S. (1976). “Forget the Product Life Cycle Concept!”, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 54, Issue 1, January-February 1976, pp. 102-112.

DODSON, J.A. Y MULLER, E. (1978) “Models of New Product Diffusion Through Advertising and Word of Mouth”, Management Science, Vol. 24, Issue 15, Noviembre 1978, pp. 1568-1578.

ENIS, B., LA GARCE, R., PRELL, A. (1977). “Extending the Product Life Cycle”, Business Horizons, Vol. 20, Issue 3, June 1977, pp. 46-56.

FIELD, G. (1971). ”Do Products Really Have Life Cycles?”, California Management Review, Vol. 14, Issue 1, Fall 1971, pp92-95.

FORRESTER, J. (1958). “Industrial Dynamics: A major breaktrhough for decision makers”, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 36, Issue 4, Jul/Aug 1958, pp. 37-66.

FORRESTER, J. (1959). “Advertising: a problem in Industrial Dynamics”, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 37, Issue 2, March/April 1959, pp. 100-110.

FOWLER, A. Y THOMAS, J. (1993). “Funtional Strategic Response to Progression Through the Product Life Cycle: An Accomodation to Marketing Reality”, American Business Review, Vol. 11, Issue 2, June 1993, pp. 36-44.

FUNK, J. (2004). “The Product Life Cycle Theory and Product Line Management: The Case of Mobile Phones”, IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, May 2004, Vol. 51, Nº 2, pp. 142-152.

GOYAL, T. (2001). “Shortening Product Life Cycles?”, Electronic News (North America), Vol. 47, Issue 16, April 2001, p46, 1p.

GREENSTEIN, S. Y WADE, J. (1998). “The Product Life Cycle in the Commercial Mainframe Computer Market, 1968-1982”, The RAND Journal of Economics, Vol. 29, Nº4, Winter 1998, pp. 772-789.

GUP, B. Y AGRRAWAL, P. (1996). “The Product Life Cycle: A Paradigm for Understanding Financial Management”, Financial Practice and Education, Vol. 6, Issue 2, Fall/Winter 1996, pp.41-48.

HAMBRICK, D., MCMILLAN, I Y DAY, D. (1982). “Strategic Attributes and Performance in the BCG Matrix – A PIMS-based Analysis of Industrial-product Businesses”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 25, Issue 3, Sept. 1982, pp. 510-531.

HARRELL, S. Y TAYLOR, E. (1981). “Modeling the Product Life Cycle for Consumer Durables”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 45, Fall 1981, pp. 68-75.

HAYES, R. Y WHEELWRIGHT, S. (1979).

A) “Link Manufacturing Process and Product Life Cycles”, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 57, Issue 1,January-February 1979, pp. 133-140.

B) “The Dynamics of Process-Product Life Cycles”, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 57, Issue 2 ,March-April 1979, pp. 127-136.

HINKLE, J. (1966). Life Cycles, New York, A.C. Nielsen Co, 1966. Citado por Polli y Cook (1969).

HOFER, C. (1975). “Toward a Contingency Theory of Business Strategy”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol.18, 1975, pp. 784-810.

HUNT, S.(1976). Marketing Theory. Columbus, OH: Grid Publications, 1976. Citado por Schnaars (1991).

KLEPPER, S. (1996). “Entry, Exit, Growth, and Innovation over the Product Life Cycle”, The American Economic Review, Vol. 86, Nº3, June 1996, pp. 562- 583.

KLUYVER, C. (1977). “Innovation and Industrial Product Life Cycles”, California Management Review,.Vol. XX, Nº 1, Fall 1977, pp. 21-32.

KOTLER, P. (1965)

A)“ Phasing out Weak Products”, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 43, Issue 2, Mar/Apr 1965, pp. 107-118.

B) “Competitive Strategies for New Product Marketing over the Life Cycle”, Management Science, Vol. 12, Nº 4, December 1965, pp.104-119.

KOTLER, P. (1991). Marketing Management: Analysis, Planning, Implementation and Control, 7th Edition, Prentice Hall, 1991.

LAMBIN, J.J. (1995). Marketing Estratégico, Tercera Edición, McGraw Hill, 1995.

LAMBKIN, M. Y DAY, G. (1989). “ Evolutionary Processes in Competitive Markets: Beyond the Product Life Cycle”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 53, Julio, 1989, pp.4-20.

LEVITT, T. (1965). “Exploit the Product Life Cycle”, Harvard Business Review, Nov.-Dec. 1965, Vol. 43, Issue 6, pp. 81-94.

LEVITT, T. (1966). “Putting the Product Life Cycle to Work”, Magament Review, Vol. 55, Issue 1, January 1966, pp. 19-23.

LITTLER, D. (1984). Marketing and Product Development, Philip Allan Publishers, Oxford, 1984.

MCGAHAN, A. (2000). “How Industries Evolve”, Business Strategy Review, Vol. 12, Issue 3, Autumn 2000, pp. 1-16.

MCMILLAN, I; HAMBRICK, D. Y DAY, D. (1982). “The Product Portfolio and Profitability– A PIMS-based Analysis of Industrial-product Businesses”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 25, Issue 4, Dec. 1982, pp. 733-755.

MAHAJAN, V. Y PETERSON, R. (1978). “Innovation Diffusion in a Dynamic Potential Adopter Population”, Management Science , nº 115, November, 1978, pp. 1.589-1.597.

MAHAJAN, V., Y MULLER, E. (1979). “Innovation, Diffusion and New Product Growth Models in Marketing”, Journal of Marketing,Vol.43, Fall 1979, pp. 55-68.

MAHAJAN, V., PETERSON, R., JAIN, S., MALHOTRA, L. (1979). “A New Product Growth Model with a Dynamic Market Potential”, Long Range Planning, Vol. 12, Issue 4, Aug. 1979, p51-58.

MEENAGHAN A. AND TURNBULL, P. (1981). “The Application of Product Life Cycle Theory to Popular Record Marketing”, European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 15, Issue 5, 1981, pp. 1-50.

MERCER, D. (1993). “ A Two-Decade Test of Product Life Cycle Theory” British Journal of Management, Vol. 4, 1993, pp. 269-274.

MICHAEL, G. (1971). “Product Petrification: A New Stage in the Life Cycle Theory” California Management Review, Vol. 14, Issue 1, Fall 1971, pp. 88-91.

MIDGLEY, D. (1981). “Toward a Theory of the Product Life Cycle: Expalining Diverstity”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 45, Fall 1981, pp. 109-115.

ONKSIVIT, S. Y SHAW, J. (1986). “Competition and Product Management: Can the Product Life Cycle Help?”, Business Horizons, Vol. 29, Issue 4, JulyAugust 1986, pp. 51-62.

PEARCE II, J. (1982). “Selecting among Alternative Grand Strategies”, Californian Management Review, Vol. 24, Issue 3, Spring 1982, pp. 23-32.

POLLI, R. Y COOK, V. (1969). “Validity of the Product Life Cycle”, Journal of Business, Vol. 42, Nº 4, October 1969, pp. 385-400.

PORTER, M. (1980). Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors, New York: The Free Press, 1980.

PORTER, M. (1985). Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance, New York, The Free Press, 1985.

QUALLS, W., OLSHAVSKY, R. Y MICHAELS, R. (1981). “Shortening of the PLC. An Empirical Test”, Journal of Marketing, Vol.45, Fall 1981, pp. 76-80.

RINK, D., RODEN, D. Y FOX, H. (1999). “Financial Management and Planning with the Product Life Cycle Concept”, Business Horizons, Vol. 42, Issue 5, Sept/Oct. 1999, pp. 65-72.

RINK, D. Y. SWAN, J. (1979). “Product Life Cycle Research: A Literature Review”, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 7, Issue 3, Sept. 1979, pp. 219-242.

ROBERTSON, T. Y GATTIGNON, H. (1986). “Competitive Effects on Technology Diffusion”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 50, Julio 1986, pp. 1-12.

ROBINSON, B. y LAKHANI, C. (1975). “Dynamic Price Models for New-Product Planning”, Management Science, June 1975, Vol. 21, Issue 10, pp. 1113- 1122.

RODRIGUEZ ESCUDERO, A. I. (2001). Sobre la conveniencia de la eliminación de productos, Universidad de Valladolid, 2001.

ROGERS, E. (1962). “The Difusión of Innovations”, Glencoe, Ill, Free Press, 1962. Citado por Polli y Cook (1969).

RYAN, C. Y RIGGS, E. (1996). “Redefining The Product Life Cycle: The FiveElement Product Wave”, Business Horizons, Vol. 39, Issue 5, SeptemberOctober 1996, pp.33-40.

SCHNAARS, S. (1986). “When Entering Growth Markets, Are Pioners Better than Poachers?”, Business Horizons, Vol. 29, Issue 2, March-April, 1986, pp. 27-36.

SCHNAARS, S. (1991). Marketing Strategy. A Customer-Driven Approach, The Free Press, Macmillan, Inc., 1991.

STARK, H. (1978). “Zum informationsgehalt des Produkt-Lebenszyklus-Modells (PLC) für Produktplanung und Produktkontrolle”, Marktforschung, Vol. 22, Nº 3, 1978, pp. 65-70. Citado por Stark, (1980).

STARK, H. (1980). “The Information Content of the Product-Life Cycle Model (PLC) for Product Planning and Control”. European Journal of Marketing. Vol. 14, Issue 9, 1980, p38, 1p.

STAUD, T. Y TAYLOR, D. (1970). A Managerial Introduction to Marketing, Prentice Hall, 1970. Citado por Meenaghan y Turnbull (1981).

SWAN, J. Y RINK, D. (1982). “Fitting Market Strategy to Varying Product Life Cycles”, Business Horizons, Vol. 25, Issue 1, Jan/Feb, 1982, pp.72-76.

TELLIS, G. Y CRAWFORD, C. (1981). “An Evolutionary Approach to Product Growth Theory”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 45, Fall 1981, pp. 125-132.

THIETART, R. Y VIVAS, R. (1984). “An Empirical Investigation of Success Strategies for Businesses along the Product Life Cycle”, Management Science, Vol.30, Nº 12, December 1984, pp.1.405-1.423.

THORELLI, H. Y BURNETT, S. (1981). “The Nature of Product Life Cycles for Industrial Goods Businesses”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 45, Fall 1981, pp. 97-108.

TILLES, S. (1966). “Strategies for Allocating Funds”, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 44, Issue 1, January/February 1966, pp. 72-81

.

WASSON, C. (1968). “How Predictable Are Fashion and Other Product Life Cycles?”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 32, Issue 3, July 1968, pp. 36-43.

WASSON, C., STURDIVANT, F. Y MCONAUGHTY, D. (1970). Acceptance Cycle Lenght, in Consumer Behaviour in Theory and in Action, Britt, S.H. (ed.), Wiley Marketing Series, 1970. Citado por Meenaghan y Turnbull (1981).

WEBSTER, F. (1994). Estrategia de Marketing Industrial, Ediciones Díaz de Santos, 1994.

WILLIAM, L. Y PESSEMIER, E. (1993). Product Planning an Management, Designing and Delivering Value, McGraw-Hill, 1993.

WILSON, R. Y GILLIGAN, C. (2002). Strategic Marketing Management. Planning, implementation an d control, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002.


Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.


Licencia Creative Commons
Revista Icade (ISSN digital: 2341-0841) editada por Universidad Pontificia Comillas se encuentra bajo una Licencia Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 3.0 Unported

Revista Icade

Universidad Pontificia Comillas

Facultad de Derecho y Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales

Alberto Aguilera, nº 23 - 28015, Madrid.

Tel. +34 91 54 22 800 | E-mail: revista-icade@comillas.edu