Gestión estratégica de recursos humanos, flexibilidad organizativa y encaje estratégico: Implicaciones para la competitividad empresarial

Patricia Ordóñez de Pablos

Resumen


Sin duda las empresas necesitan conocer cómo pueden configurar sus sistemas y prácticas de gestión de recursos humanos con el objetivo de crear una ventaja competitiva a largo plazo. Para ello, deben comprender la importancia de que estos sistemas y prácticas de recursos humanos logren de manera simultanea dos objetivos claves: la flexibilidad organizativa y el encaje estratégico. Así, por un lado, el sistema de gestión estratégica de recursos humanos debe permitir la adaptación de las prácticas de gestión de recursos humanos y las habilidades, conocimientos y comportamientos de los empleados a las necesidades inmediatas de la empresa, reflejadas éstas en su estrategia organizativa. Por otro, estos sistemas de gestión de recursos humanos deben favorecer el desarrollo de una capacidad dinámica en la organización, generando así una capacidad de respuesta a las necesidades planteadas por la actual estrategia organizativa. En resumen, la gestión estratégica de recursos humanos debe facilitar la flexibilidad estratégica con el fin de que la empresa alcance un encaje dinámico y pueda responder adecuadamente a las demandas de la estrategia y el entorno. El objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar como la gestión estratégica de recursos humanos puede generar una ventaja competitiva sostenible si incorpora dos objetivos esenciales: por un lado, la flexibilidad organizativa, tanto de recursos como de coordinación, y por otro, el encaje, tanto externo como interno. El logro de estos objetivos de manera simultanea permite la generación de un encaje dinámico, capaz de generar una empresa que se renueva a si misma, al tiempo que le confiere una capacidad de respuesta rápida frente a las demandas del entorno. Con el fin de examinar estas cuestiones, el trabajo se estructura en tres apartados principales. En primer lugar, se analiza la importancia de la gestión estratégica de recursos humanos como factor competitivo clave en el entorno económico actual. En segundo lugar, se propone un marco conceptual para el análisis de los recursos humanos desde la perspectiva de la teoría de recursos y capacidades de la empresa. Sin duda, el capital humano de la organización representa un recurso crítico dado su carácter especifico. En tercer lugar, se aborda cómo la gestión estratégica de recursos humanos puede configurar los sistemas y prácticas de recursos humanos para desarrollar una capacidad dinámica que permita a la empresa responder a los desafíos competitivos del mercado, tanto en entornos estables como dinámicos. Para ello, los sistemas de gestión de recursos humanos deben ser capaces de responder simultáneamente a los objetivos de encaje estratégico y flexibilidad organizativa. Finalmente se presentan las principales conclusiones e implicaciones para la gestión de recursos humanos derivadas de este trabajo.


Palabras clave


capital humano, competitividad empresarial, encaje externo e interno, estrategia de la empresa, flexibilidad organizativa, gestión de recursos humanos, recursos organizativos.

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