“Africa does not Fit in Europe”

A Comparative Analysis of Anti-Immigration Parties’ Discourse in Spain and Italy

Palabras clave: discurso anti-inmigración, discurso político, populismo, partidos de extrema derecha

Resumen

La politización de la inmigración ha llevado el tema la inmigración al centro del debate político-electoral, creando el caldo de cultivo para el éxito de los partidos populistas de derecha.

Este artículo tiene como objetivo estudiar la narrativa de la inmigración y su politización en el discurso de VOX, comparándola con el partido italiano Lega.

El análisis revela que ambos partidos comparten las características clásicas del populismo nativista: la representación de un pueblo virtuoso y trabajador, amenazado por la invasión de algunos “otros”, los inmigrantes, que se entran en el espacio soberano de los nativos para explotar y cometer crímenes. En ambos casos, se manipula el concepto de espacio, representando a los países como espacios limitados y a los inmigrantes como una amenaza, para legitimar las respuestas políticas negativas.

El estudio también identifica una novedad: la construcción de las ONG de rescate como el nuevo actor antagonista.

Citas

Alonso, S., & Rovira Kaltwasser, C. (2015). Spain: No Country for the Populist Radical Right?. South European Society and Politics, 20 (1), 21-45. https://doi.org/10.1080/13608746.2014.985448

Arzheimer, K. (2009). Contextual Factors and the Extreme Right Vote in Western Europe,1980-2002. American Journal of Political Science, 53 (2), 259-75. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5907.2009.00369.x

Aslanidis, P. (2018). Measuring populist discourse with semantic text analysis: an application on grassroots populist mobilization. Quality and Quantity, 53(3),1241-1263. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-017-0517-4

Avanza, M. (2010). The Northern League and Its ‘Innocuous’ Xenophobia. In Italy Today. In A. Mammone & G. A. Veltri (Eds.), The Sick Man of Europe (pp. 131-142). London: Routledge.

Barquero, P. (2019). The Electoral Breakthrough of the Radical Right in Spain: Correlates of Electoral Support for VOX in Andalusia (2018). Genealogy, 3(4),72. https://doi.org/10.3390/genealogy3040072

Bernhard, L., & Kriesi, H. (2019). Populism in election times: a comparative analysis of 11 countries in Western Europe. West European Politics, 42(6), 1188-1208. https://doi.org/10.1080/01402382.2019.1596694

Betz, H. G. (2003). Xenophobia, identity politics and exclusionary populism in Western Europe. Socialist Register, 39, 193-210.

Brons, L. (2015). “Othering, an analysis.” Transcience, 6 (1), 69-90. Retrieved at: https://www2.hu-berlin.de/transcience/Vol6_No1_2015_69_90.pdf

Brunazzo, M., & Gilbert, M. (2017). Insurgents against Brussels: Euroscepticism and the right-wing populist turn of the Lega Nord since 2013. Journal of Modern Italian Studies, 22 (5), 624-641. https://doi.org/10.1080/1354571X.2017.1389524

Caiani, M., y Della Porta, D. (2011). The elitist populism of the extreme right: A frame analysis of extreme right-wing discourses in Italy and Germany. Acta Politica, 46, 180-202. https://doi.org/10.1057/ap.2010.28

Canovan, M. (2005). The People. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Casals, X. (2011). La nova dreta populista i ‘l’enigma espanyol’. L’espill 38, 82-91. Retrieved at: https://roderic.uv.es/handle/10550/34612

Cea D’ancona, M. Á., Valles-Martínez, M. S., & Eseverri Mayer, C. (2014). Convergencias y divergencias de los discursos e imágenes de la inmigración en etapas de bonanza y de crisis. Migraciones. Publicación Del Instituto Universitario De Estudios Sobre Migraciones, 35, 9-39. https://doi.org/10.14422/mig.i35.y2014.001

Cea D’ancona, M. Á., & Valles-Martínez, M. S. (2015). Changes in the perception of Latin American immigrants in host countries during the Great Recession. In M. Aysa-Lastra & L. Cachón (Eds.), Immigrant vulnerability and resilience. International perspectives on migration (pp. 129-146). Cham: Springer

Cervi, L. (2019). “Orgullosamente Populista”. Populismo 2.0 y el caso Salvini. Sistema: Revista de Ciencias Sociales 254, 89-119. Retrieved at: https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=7039447

Cervi, L. (2020a). Exclusionary Populism and Islamophobia: A Comparative Analysis of Italy and Spain. Religions, 11(10), 516. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel11100516

Cervi, L. (2020b). Veni, vidi, Facebooked-live: análisis del éxito de Matteo Salvini en Facebook. Revista CIDOB d’ Afers Internacionals, 124, 99-122. https://doi.org/10.24241/rcai.2020.124.1.99

Cervi, L., & Tejedor, S. (2020). Framing “The Gypsy Problem”: Populist Electoral Use of Romaphobia in Italy (2014-2019). Social Sciences, 9(6), 105. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9060105

Cervi, L., Tejedor, S., & Alencar Dornelles, M. (2020). When Populists Govern the Country: Strategies of Legitimization of Anti-Immigration Policies in Salvini’s Italy. Sustainability, 12, 10225. https://doi.org/10.3390/su122310225

Chiaramonte, A., Emanuele, V., Maggini, N., & Paparo, A. (2018). Populist Success in a Hung Parliament: The 2018 General Election in Italy. South European Society and Politics, 23(4), 479-501. https://doi.org/10.1080/13608746.2018.1506513

Climent, V., & Montaner, M. (2020). Los partidos populistas de extrema derecha en España: Un análisis sociológico comparado. Izquierdas, 49, 910-950. https://doi.org/10.1080/13608746.2018.1506513

Cusumano, E., & Villa, M. (2020). From “Angels” to “Vice Smugglers”: the Criminalization of Sea Rescue NGOs in Italy. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10610-020-09464-1

Cusumano, E. (2018) The sea as humanitarian space: Non-governmental Search and Rescue dilemmas on the Central Mediterranean migratory route. Mediterranean Politics, 23(3), 387-394. https://doi.org/10.1080/13629395.2017.1302223

Dennison, J., & Mendes, M. (2019). When do populist radical right parties succeed? Salience, stigma, and the case of the end of Iberian ‘exceptionalism’. Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies 19(26), 26-34. Retrieved at: https://cadmus.eui.eu/handle/1814/62226

Ferreira, C. (2019). Vox como representante de la derecha radical en España: un estudio sobre su ideología. Revista Española de Ciencia Política, 51, 73-98. https://doi.org/10.21308/recp.51.03

Franzosi, R. (2009). Quantitative narrative analysis. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Publications, Inc.

Gil Araujo, S. (2010). The Coloniality of Power and Ethnic Affinity in Migration Policy: The Spanish Case. In E. Gutiérrez Rodríguez, M. Boatcă & S. Costa (Eds.), Decolonizing European Sociology, Transdisciplinary Approaches (pp. 179-194). Surrey: Ashgate.

Golder, M. (2016). Far right parties in Europe. Annual Review of Political Science, 19, 477-497. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-polisci-042814-012441

Hawkins, K. A., Aguilar, R., Castanho Silva, B., Jenne, E. K., Kocijan, B., & Rovira Kaltwasser, C. (2019). Measuring Populist Discourse: The Global Populism Database”. Paper presented at the 2019 EPSA Annual Conference in Belfast, UK, June 20-22.

Hobolt, S. B., & De Vries, C. E. (2015). Issue Entrepreneurship and Multiparty Competition. Comparative Political Studies, 48(9),1159-1185. https://doi.org/10.1177/0010414015575030

Hogan, J., & Haltinner, K. (2015). Floods, Invaders, and Parasites: Immigration Threat Narratives and Right-Wing Populism in the USA, UK and Australia. Journal of Intercultural Studies, 36(5), 520-543. https://doi.org/10.1080/07256868.2015.1072907

Kazin, M. (1995). The Populist Persuasion: An American History. London: Cornell University Press.

Koopmans, R., & Statham, P. (2010). The Making of a European Public Sphere. Media Discourse and Political Contention. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kriesi, H. (2014). The Populist Challenge. West European Politics, 37(2), 361-78. https://doi.org/10.1080/01402382.2014.887879

Kröger, M. (2020) Field research notes on Amazon deforestation during the Bolsonaro era. Globalizations, 17(6), 1080-1083. https://doi.org/10.1080/14747731.2020.1763063

Kuypers, J. (2010). Doing News Framing Analysis. New York: Routledge.

Laclau, E. (1996). Emancipation(s). London: Verso.

Mair, P. (1997). Party system change. Oxford, UK: Clarendon.

Mariani, R. D., Pasquini, A., & Rosati, F. (2020). Elementary Facts About Immigration in Italy. What Do We Know About Immigration and its Impact. CEIS Working Paper, 488. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.361334

Martínez Lirola, M. (2020). Explorando el discurso de la prensa en torno a la defensa de los derechos humanos en el rescate del buque Aquarius. Migraciones. Publicación del Instituto Universitario de Estudios sobre Migraciones, 49, 147-170. https://doi.org/10.14422/mig.i49.y2020.006

Meny, Y., & Surel, Y. (2002). Democracies and the populist challenge. Basingstoke: PalgraveMacmillan.

Meyer, S., & Rosenberger, S. (2015). Just a Shadow? The Role of Radical Right Parties in the Politicization of Immigration, 1995-2009. Politics and Governance, 3, 1-17. https://doi.org/10.17645/pag.v3i2.64

Mudde, C. (2018). How populism became the concept that defines our age. The Guardian. Retrieved at: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2018/nov/22/populism-concept-defines-our-age

Mudde, C. (2004). The Populist Zeitgeist. Government and Opposition, 39(4), 542-63. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1477-7053.2004.00135.x

Mudde, C., & Rovira Kaltwasser, C. (2017). Populism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Oliver, J. E., & Wood, T. J. (2014). Conspiracy Theories and the Paranoid Style(s) of Mass Opinion. American Journal of Political Science, 58, 952- 966. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajps.12084

Pauwels, T. (2011). Measuring Populism: A Quantitative Text Analysis of Party Literature in Belgium. Journal of Elections, Public Opinion and Parties, 21(1), 97-119. https://doi.org/10.1080/17457289.2011.539483

Petrocik, J. R. (1996). Issue Ownership in Presidential Elections, with a 1980 Case Study. American Journal of Political Science, 40, 825-850. https://doi.org/10.2307/2111797

Rydgren, J. (2005). Is extreme right‐wing populism contagious? Explaining the emergence of a new party family. European Journal of Political Research, 44, 413-437. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6765.2005.00233.x

Sartori G. (1991). Comparing and Miscomparing. Journal of Theoretical Politics, 3(3), 243-257. https://doi.org/10.1177/0951692891003003001

Stanley, B. (2008). The thin ideology of populism. Journal of Political Ideologies, 13(1), 95-110. https://doi.org/10.1080/13569310701822289

Tarchi, M. (2015). Italy: The promised land of populism? Contemporary Italian Politics, 7(3), 273-285. https://doi.org/10.1080/23248823.2015.1094224

Turnbull-Dugarte, S. J. (2019). Explaining the end of Spanish exceptionalism and electoral support for Vox. Research & Politics, 6(2). https://doi.org/10.1177/2053168019851680

Urbinati, N. (2015). Il “gentismo” del M5S. Rivista Il Mulino, 3. Retrieved at: https://www.rivistailmulino.it/news/newsitem/index/Item/News:NEWS_ITEM:2872

Van der Brug, W., D’Amato, G., Ruedin, D., & Berkhout, J. (2015). The Politicisation of Migration. London: Routledge.

Walgrave, S., Tresch, S., & Lefevere, j. (2015). The Conceptualisation and Measurement of Issue Ownership. West European Politics, 38(4), 778-796. https://doi.org/10.1080/01402382.2015.1039381

Wodak, R. (2015). The Politics of Fear: What Right-Wing Populist Discourses Mean. Los Angeles: Sage.

Publicado
2021-05-07
Cómo citar
Cervi, L., & Tejedor, S. (2021). “Africa does not Fit in Europe”: A Comparative Analysis of Anti-Immigration Parties’ Discourse in Spain and Italy. Migraciones. Publicación Del Instituto Universitario De Estudios Sobre Migraciones, (51), 207-239. https://doi.org/10.14422/mig.i51y2021.008