Between national states and cosmopolitan societies: the institution of citizenship takes the immigration test

Mauricio Ambrosini

Resumen


El asentamiento permanente de inmigrantes de origen extranjero y la formación de segundas y terceras generaciones, ha contribuido mucho a relanzar el debate sobre el contenido y los límites de la institución de la ciudadanía, poniendo en tela de juicio la estrecha relación con los Estados nacionales. El aumento del número y la creciente diversidad de la condición jurídica de los extranjeros que residen en el territorio de los Estados soberanos difuminan las líneas divisorias entre los de adentro y los de afuera. Por tanto, emergen interrogantes acerca de los criterios y formas de participación de los residentes extranjeros como ciudadanos, con las obligaciones y beneficios que de ello se derivan. En paralelo, diversas formas de participación política de los migrantes se están desarrollando a través de las fronteras, especialmente con los paísesde origen. El artículo examina las implicaciones y significados que se derivan, en el contexto actual, de lo que puede definirse como reconfiguraciones transnacionales en las sociedades democráticas.Tras haber examinado la ciudadanía “desde arriba”, en términos del tipo de derechos concedidos a los residentes extranjeros, su alcance, tiempos y modos de acceso, el artículo presenta una perspectiva más reciente de los estudios, que mira “desde abajo”,es decir, desde el punto de vista de las prácticas reales de acceso y uso, reinterpretaciones y renegociaciones de los contenidos de ciudadanía: procesos en que los migrantes y los refugiados participanactivamente en diversos niveles tanto de forma individual como colectiva.

Palabras clave


ciudadanía, inmigración, derechos sociales, participación política, cosmopolitismo.

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Referencias


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