La violación de las mujeres yazidíes: ¿un genocidio?

Un estudio acerca del crimen de violación como forma de genocidio en Derecho Penal Internacional

  • Paula Castellano San José Universidad Pontificia Comillas
Palabras clave: violencia sexual, violación, Derecho Penal Internacional, EI, Yazidi, genocidio

Resumen

La violación ha sido usada como un arma de guerra durante la historia de la humanidad. Con el establecimiento de la Corte Penal Internacional, dicho crimen fue incluido en el Estatuto de Roma, siendo reconocido internacionalmente como un crimen de guerra, de lesa humanidad y un modo de cometer genocidio. El Estado Islámico de Irak y Siria, en su guerra para establecer un califato, ha llevado a cabo una campaña de violencia sexual contra las mujeres de minorías religiosas como los Yazidíes. Este artículo examina la evolución de la definición de violación en Derecho Penal Internacional y aplica la definición actual a los crímenes cometidos por el EI. El estudio analiza los elementos del actus reus de genocidio y considera que las acciones llevadas a cabo por el EI contra los Yazidíes pueden calificarse como genocidio cometido mediante violación.

Biografía del autor/a

Paula Castellano San José, Universidad Pontificia Comillas

Antigua alumna de la Universidad Pontificia Comillas ICAI-ICADE.

Graduada en Derecho y Relaciones Internacionales (E-5).

Citas

Ahmado, N. (2018, April 9). Yazidis Still Suffering Years After IS Genocide. Relief Web. Retrieved from https://reliefweb.int/report/iraq/yazidis-still-suffering-years-after-genocide

Ahram, A. (2015). Sexual Violence and the Making of ISIS. Survival, 57(3), 57-78. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00396338.2015.1047251

AL-ARABIYA NEWS. ISIS Sex Slaves Guide Mars International Human Rights Day (Dec. 10, 2014). Retrieved from http://english.alarabiya.net/en/perspective/features/2014/12/10/ISISsex-slaves-guide-mars-international-Human-Rights-Day.html

Amnesty International Report. (2014). Escape from Hell: Torture and Sexual Slavery in Islamic State Captivity in Iraq.

Askin, K. (2003). Prosecuting wartime rape and other gender-related crimes under International Law: Extraordinary advances, enduring obstacles. Berkeley Journal of International Law, 21(2), Article 4.

Askin, K. (2004). A Decade of the Development of Gender Crimes in International Courts and Tribunals: 1993 to 2003, 3 Human Rights Brief 16.

Boon, K. (2001). Rape and Forced Pregnancy Under the ICC Statute: Human Dignity, Autonomy and Consent. Columbia Human Rights Law Review, (32), 645-46.

Brouwer, A. de (2005). Supranational Criminal Prosecution of Sexual Violence: the ICC and the practice of the ICTY and the ICTR.

Buhhandler-Raphael, M. (2010). Sexual Abuse of Power. University of Florida Journal of Law and Public Policy, 21, 78-146.

Buchhandler-Raphael, M. (2011). The Failure of Consent: Re-Conceptualizing Rape as Sexual Abuse of Power. Michigan Journal of Gender and Law, 18(1), 147-228.

Buss, D. (2009). Rethinking ‘Rape as a Weapon of War’. Feminist Legal Studies, 15, 145-163. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10691-009-9118-5

Callimachi, R. (2015, August 14). Enslaving Young Girls, The Islamic State Builds a Vast System of Rape. N. Y. TIMES.

Campanaro, J. (2000). Note, Women, War, and International Law: The Historical Treatment of Gender-Based War Crimes. George Washington Law Journal, 89(2557).

Cetorelli, V., Sasson, I., Shabila, N., & Burnham, G. (2017). Mortality and kidnapping estimates for the Yazidi population in the area of Mount Sinjar, Iraq, in August 2014: A retrospective household survey. PLOS Medicine, 14(5). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002297

Chan, S., & Sengupta, S. (2016, October 11) Woman Who Escaped Islamic State Captivity Wins Human Rights Prize. N. Y. TIMES.

Chertoff, E. (2017). Prosecuting Gender-Based Persecution: The Islamic State at the ICC. The Yale Law Journal, (126), 1052-1116.

Chinkin, C. (1994). Rape and Sexual Abuse of Women in International Law. Symposium: The Yugoslav Crisis, new International issues. European Journal of International Law, 5(3), 326-341. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.ejil.a035874

Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 39/46 of 10 December 1984, entry into force 26 June 1987, in accordance with article 27 (1).

Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. Approved and proposed for signature and ratification or accession by General Assembly resolution 260 A (III) of 9 December 1948. Entry into force: 12 January 1951, in accordance with article XIII.

Cooper, H., & Shear, M. (2014, August 13). Militants’ Siege on Mountain in Iraq Is Over, Pentagon Says. N. Y. TIMES. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/14/world/middleeast/iraqyazidi-refugees.html

Copelon, R. (2000). Gender Crimes as War Crimes: Integrating Crimes against Women into International Criminal Law. McGill Law Journal, 46, 217-240.

Counter Extremism Project Report: ISIS Persecution of Religions. May 2017.

Elements of Crimes of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Published by the International Criminal Court ISBN No. 92-9227-232-2 ICC-PIDS-LT-03002/11_Eng.

Ellis, M. (2007). Breaking the Silence: Rape as an International Crime. Case Western. Reserve Journal of International Law, 38, 225-247.

Engle, K. (2005). Feminism and its (Dis)Contents. Criminalizing Wartime Rape in Bosnia- Herzegovina. The American Journal of International Law, 99(4), 779-816. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/3396669

EUROJUST. Report by the Genocide Network. The prosecution at national level of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) committed by the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). The Hague, July 2017.

Ferguson, A. (2014, August 11). Persecuted Yazidis Again Caught in Larger Struggle. N. Y. TIMES Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/12/world/middleeast/persecuted-yazidisagain-caught-in-larger-struggle.html

Goodstein, L. (2016, May 8). Muslim Leaders Wage Theological Battle, Stoking ISIL’ Anger. New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/09/us/ISIL-threatensmuslimpreachers-who-are-waging-theological-battle-online.html

Haffajee, R. (2006). Prosecuting Crimes of Rape and Sexual Violence at the ICTR: The Application of Joint Criminal Enterprise Theory. Harvard Journal of Law & Gender, 29, 202-221.

Halley, J. (2008). Rape in Berlin: Reconsidering the Criminalization of Rape in the International Law of Armed Conflict. Melbourne Journal of International Law, 9, 78-124.

Henne, P., & Hackett, C. (2014, August 12). Iraqi Yazidis: Hazy Population Numbers and a History of Persecution. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org/facttank/2014/08/12/iraqi-yazidis-hazy-population-numbers-and-a-history-of-persecution

Human Rights Council, Thirty-second session; Agenda item 4 (15 June, 2016). The Commission of Inquiry Report. “They came to destroy”: ISIS Crimes Against the Yazidis. A/ HRC/32/CRP.2

Jelínková, E. (2018). The strategic use of sexual violence as a weapon of war in genocide and in ethnic/religious conflicts and a case study on the use of sexual slavery by ISIL within the context of the most recent Yazidi genocide in Iraq. (Master Thesis). Utrecht University Repository.

Kalosieh, A. (2003). Consent to Genocide: The ICTY’s Improper Use of the Consent Paradigm to Prosecute Genocidal Rape in Foca. Women’s Rights Law Rep., 24(121).

Kikoler, N. Our Generation is Gone: The Islamic State’s Targeting of Iraqi minorities in Ninewa U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum. https://www.ushmm.org/m/pdfs/IraqBearingWitness-Report-111215.pdf

Kinports, K. (2001). Rape and Force: The Forgotten Mens Rea. Buffalo Criminal Law Review, 4(2), 755-799. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/nclr.2001.4.2.755

Kirk McDonald, G. (2000). Crimes of Sexual Violence: The Experience of the International Criminal Tribunal. Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, 39(1).

Kizilhan Jİ, & Bor, G. (2018). Êzidî Kadınlar Çok Güçlü; Bunun Sebebi Kuşaklar Arası Travma (Yazidis women are powerful: Because of transgenerational traumas. Bianet. Retrieved from https://bianet.org/bianet/toplumsalcinsiyet/199681-prof-kizilhan-ezidi-kadinlarcokguclu-bunun-sebebi-kusaklar-arasi-travma

La Haye, E. (2001). Article 8(2)(b)(xxii)—Rape, Sexual Slavery, Enforced Prostitution, Forced Pregnancy, Enforced Sterilization, Sexual Violence. In Roy S. Lee (ed.), The International Criminal Court: Element of Crimes and Rules of Procedure and Evidence.

Landay, J. et al. (2015, December 29). Exclusive: Islamic State Ruling Aims to Settle Who Can Have Sex with Female Slaves. REUTERS. Retrieved from http://www.reuters.com/article/ususa-islamic-state-sexslaves-exclusive-idUSKBN0UC0AO20151230

MacKinnon, C. (1994). Rape, Genocide, and Women’s Human Rights. In Tanley G. French, Wanda Teays, and Laura M. Purdy (eds.), Violence Against Women: Philosophical Perspectives (pp. 43-54). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

MacKinnon, C. (2005). Unequal Sex: A Sex Equality Approach to Sexual Assault. In Women’s Lives, Men’s Laws. Belknap Press.

MacKinnon, C. (2005). Genocide’s Sexuality. In Are Women Human? And other International dialogues. Belknap Press (ed.)

MacKinnon, C. (2006). Defining Rape Internationally: A Comment on Akayesu. Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, 44, 940-958.

Maier, N. (2011). The Crime of Rape under the Rome Statute of the ICC: with a special emphasis on the jurisprudence of the ad hoc Criminal Tribunals. Amsterdam Law Forum, 3(2), 146-159. DOI: http://doi.org/10.37974/ALF.180

Maravilla, C. (2001). Rape as a War Crime: The Implications of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia’s Decision. In Prosecutor v. Kunarac, Kovac, & Vukovic in “International Humanitarian Law”, 13 Florida Journal of International Law 321.

McDougall, G. (1998). Contemporary Forms of Slavery: Systematic rape, sexual slavery and slavery-like practices during armed conflict. Report for the Economic and Social Council. Commission on Human Rights, Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, E/CN.4/Sub.2/1998/13.

Memri Jihad & Terrorism Threat Monitor “Questions and Answers on Taking Captives and Slaves,” attributed to the Research and Fatwa Department. Islamic State (ISIS) Releases Pamphlet on Female Slaves, (Dec. 4, 2014). https://www.memrijttm.org/islamic-state-isisreleases-pamphlet-on-female-slaves.html

Murad, N. (2017). Yo seré la última: Historia de mi cautiverio y mi lucha contra el Estado Islámico. Penguin Books.

Naffine, Ngaire. (1992). Windows on the Legal Mind: The Evocation of Rape in Legal Writings. Melbourne University Law Review, 18, 741-767.

O’Byrne, K. (2011). Beyond Consent: Conceptualising Sexual Assault in International Criminal Law. International Criminal Law Review, 11(3), 495-514. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/157181211X576384

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq – Human Rights Office (August 2016). A Call for Accountability and Protection: Yezidi Survivors of Atrocities Committed by ISIL.

Prosecutor v. Jean Paul Akayesu. ICTR-96-4-T, 2 September 1998.

Prosecutor v. Furundizja. IT-95-17/1-T, 10 December 1998.

Prosecutor v. Kayishema and Ruzindana (Case No. ICTR-95-1-T), 21 May 1999.

Prosecutor v. Athanase Seromba, (Case No. ICTR-2001-66-I).

Prosecutor v. Radislav Kristic (Case No. IT-98-33-T), 2001.

Prosecutor v. Goran Jelisić, (Case No. IT-95-10-A) 5 July 2001.

Prosecutor v. Kovac, Kunarac and Vucovik. (Trial Judgment): IT-96-23-T& IT-96-23/1T, 22 February 2001; (Appeals Judgment): IT-96-23& IT-96-23/1-A, 12 June, 2002.

Prosecutor v. Niyitegeka, (No. ICTR-96-14-T), 16 May 2003

Prosecutor v. Sylvestre Gacumbitsi. (ICTR-2001-64-T), 17 June 2004.

Prosecutor v. Radoslav Brđanin (Case No. IT-99-36-T), 1 September 2004.

Prosecutor v. Seromba, (Case No. ICTR-2001-66-I), 13 December 2006.

Prosecutor v. Jean Pierre Bemba Gombo. (ICC-01/05-01/08), 21 March 2016.

Reid-Cunningham, A. R. (2008). Rape as a Weapon of Genocide. Genocide Studies and Prevention, 3(3), 279-296. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1353/gsp.2011.0043

Rogers, S. (2016). Sexual Violence or Rape as a Constituent Act of Genocide: Lessons from the ad hoc Tribunals and a Prescription for the International Criminal Court. George Washington International Law Review, 48(2), 265-314.

Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Text of the Rome Statute circulated as document A/CONF.183/9 of 17 July 1998 and corrected by process-verbaux of 10 November 1998, 12 July 1999, 30 November 1999, 8 May 2000, 17 January 2001 and 16 January 2002. The Statute entered into force on 1 July 2002.

Russell-Brown, S. (2003). Rape as an Act of Genocide. Berkeley Journal of International Law, 21, 350-373.

Scholz, S. (2007). War Rape’s Challenge to Just War Theory. In S. P. Lee (ed.), Intervention, terrorism and torture: contemporary challenges to just war theory, 4th ed. (pp. 273-288). Springer.

Schomburg, W, & Peterson, I. (2007). Genuine Consent to Sexual Violence under International Criminal Law. American Journal of International Law, 101(1), 121-140. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0002930000029560

Spees, P. (2003). Women’s advocacy in the creation of the International Criminal Court: Changing the landscapes of justice and power. Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 28(4), 1234-1254. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/375498

Spencer, R. (2013, October 13). Thousands of Yazidi Women Sold as Sex Slaves “For Theological Reasons”, Says ISIL, Telegraph. Retrieved from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/islamic-state/11158797/Thousands-of-Yazidi-women-sold-assexslaves-fortheological-reasons-says-Isil.html

Stephens, B. (1999). Humanitarian Law and Gender Violence: An End to Centuries of Neglect? 3 Hofstra L. & Pol’y Symposium, pp. 87-110.

Sverdlov, D. (2017). Rape in War: Prosecuting the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and Boko Haram for Sexual Violence Against Women. Cornell International Law Journal, 50(2), 333-358. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31228/osf.io/ew2uj

Tadros, V. (2006). Rape Without Consent. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies, 26(3), 515-543. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ojls/gql016

United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq Report. “Human Rights, Every Day, for all Iraqis” Promotion and Protection of rights of victims of sexual violence captured by ISIL/or in areas controlled by ISIL in Iraq. (22 Aug. 2017)

United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq, Human Rights Office, Report on the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict (6 July–10 September 2014) http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Countries/IQ/UNAMI_OHCHR_POC_Report_FINAL_6July_10September2014.pdf

United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women, Department of Economic and Social Affairs: Issue Women 2000. Sexual Violence and Armed Conflict: United Nations Response.

Weiner, P. (2013). The Evolving Jurisprudence of the Crime of Rape in International Criminal Law. Boston College Law Review, 54(3), 1207-1237

Wakabi, W. (2011, June 24). Questions and Answers with Matrie-Edith Douzima-Lawson, Lawyer for victims in the Bemba Trial. Retrieved from https://www.ijmonitor.org/2011/06/qa-with-marie-edith-douzima-lawson-lawyer-forvictims-in-the-bemba-trial/

Werle, G, & Jessberger, F. (2005). Principles of International Criminal Law. Oxford University Press.

Withnall, A. (2014, December, 10). ISIS Releases ‘Abhorrent’ Sex Slaves Pamphlet with 27 Tips for Militants on Taking, Punishing and Raping Female Captives, Independent (UK). Retrieved from http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/isisreleases-abhorrent-sexslaves-pamphlet-with-27-tips-for-militants-on-taking-punishingand-9915913.html

Wright, R. (2017, March 24) Face to Face with the ghost of ISIS. The New Yorker. Retrieved from https://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/face-to-face-with-the-ghost-of-isis

YAZDA (2017, September). An uncertain future for Yazidis: a report marking three years of an ongoing genocide. Retrieved from https://www.yazda.org/assets/uploads/report/y1152034125784.pdf

Yüksel, S., Saner, S., Devrim, A., Oglagu, Z., & Bülbül, I. (2018). Genocidal sexual assault on women and the role of culture in the rehabilitation process: Experiences from working with Yazidi women in Turkey. Journal on Rehabilitation of Torture Victims and Prevention of Torture, 28(3).

Publicado
2020-07-19
Cómo citar
Castellano San José, P. (2020). La violación de las mujeres yazidíes: ¿un genocidio? : Un estudio acerca del crimen de violación como forma de genocidio en Derecho Penal Internacional. Comillas Journal of International Relations, (18), 50-71. https://doi.org/10.14422/cir.i18.y2020.003
Sección
Artículos