El genocidio patrocinado por el Estado de la comunidad Rohingya desde una perspectiva constructivista

  • Carmen Romero Garrido
Palabras clave: constructivismo, Rohingya, genocidio, refugiados, islam, budismo, Corte Internacional de Justicia

Resumen

El pueblo Rohingya ha sido objeto de persecución por las autoridades birmanas y, consecuentemente, sometido a un genocidio. El objeto de este estudio es la investigación del conflicto nacido entre dos pueblos y sus raíces religiosas: budismo e islam. Posteriormente, analizaremos este enconamiento histórico desde un punto de vista propio de la teoría constructivista y cómo se ha logrado la construcción de una identidad antagonista del “otro”, del “enemigo” y lo “hostil” por parte del estado, las instituciones gubernamentales y el pueblo birmano dentro de la cultura, la legislación y la constante manipulación histórica.

Citas

ACNUR. (2020, July). Kutupalong: el campo de refugiados más grande del mundo. Agencia de la ONU para los Refugiados. https://eacnur.org/blog/kutupalong-el-campo-de-refugiados-mas-grande-del-mundo-tc_alt45664n_o_pstn_o_pst/

Adams, B., & Ganguly, M. (2019, June 5). For Rohingya Refugees, There’s No Return in Sight. Why They Remain Stuck in Bangladesh. Foreign Affairs. https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/burma-myanmar/2019-06-05/rohingya-refugees-theres-no-return-sight

Albert, E., & Maizland, L. (2020, January 3). The Rohingya Crisis. Council on Foreign Relations. https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/rohingya-crisis

Amnesty International. (2018). “We Will Destroy Everything” Military Responsibility for Crimes Against Humanity in Rakhine State, Myanmar. Amnesty International Ltd.

Bakali, N. (2021). Islamophobia in Myanmar: the Rohingya genocide and the ‘war on terror’. Race & Class, 62(4), 53-71. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0306396820977753

Barnett, M. (2017). Social Constructivism. In J. Baylis, S. Smith, & P. Owens, The Globalization of World Politics. An Introduction to International Relations (pp. 144-158). Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/hepl/9780198825548.003.0012

Barron, L. (2017). Meet Min Aung Hlaing, the Chief of Myanmar’s Notorious Military. TIME. https://time.com/5004822/myanmar-rohingya-min-aung-hlaing/

Bauchner, S. (2021, September 21). This Is What Impunity Looks Like Myanmar’s Coup Built on Years of Failed Accountability. Opinio Iuris. https://opiniojuris.org/2021/09/27/symposium-on-the-current-crisis-in-myanmar-this-is-what-impunity-looks-like-myanmars--coup-built-on-years-of-failed-accountability/

BBC. (2012, November 21). The Burmese monks who preach intolerance against Muslim Rohingyas. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/av/world-asia-20427889

Constituent Assembly of Burma. (1974). The Constitution of the Union of Burma. http://www.myanmar-law-library.org/spip.php?page=pdfjs&id_document=61

Deutsche Welle. (2015, May 23). Controversial population control bill becomes law in Myanmar. Deutsche Welle. https://www.dw.com/en/controversial-population-control-bill-becomes-law-in-myanmar/a-18472590

Doctors Without Borders. (2019, June). Rohingya refugee crisis. Doctors Without Borders. https://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/rohingya-refugee-crisis

Ducci, C. (2018, June 11). ASEAN’s Norm Contestation over the Responsibility to Protect: A Comparative Study of the Humanitarian Crises of Cyclone Nargis and the Rohingyas in Myanmar. https://studenttheses.universiteitleiden.nl/access/item%3A2610272/view

Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2014, February 5). Theravada Buddhism. Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Theravada

Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office. (2022, January 31). UK announces new sanctions against Myanmar ahead of 1-year anniversary of coup. GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/uk-announces-new-sanctions-against-myanmar-ahead-of-one-year-anniversary-of-coup

Fortify Rights. (2021, August). Ending Impunity in Myanmar. https://www.fortifyrights.org/downloads/Ending%20Impunity%20in%20Myanmar%20-%20Fortify%20Rights%20-%20August%202021.pdf

Freeman, J. (2019, September 29). The ‘Good Monk’ Myth. The Atlantic. https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2017/09/saffron-revolution-good-monk-myth/541116/

Harvard Divinity School. (2022). Religion and Public Life. Saffron Revolution. https://rpl.hds.harvard.edu/faq/saffron-revolution

Hudson, J., Mahtani, S., & Ryan, M. (2022, March 21). United States declares Myanmar committed genocide against Rohingya. The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/national-security/2022/03/21/myanmar-genocide-rohingya/

Human Rights Council. (2018, September 17). Human rights situations that require the Council’s attention. Report of the detailed findings of the Independent International Fact-Finding Mission on Myanmar. https://www.ohchr.org/sites/default/files/Documents/HRBodies/HRCouncil/FFM-Myanmar/A_HRC_39_CRP.2.pdf

Human Rights Watch. (2000, May). Burma/Bangladesh Burmese Refugees in Bangladesh: still no durable solution. II. Historical Background. https://www.hrw.org/reports/2000/burma/burm005-01.htm

Human Rights Watch. (2000, May). Burma/Bangladesh Burmese Refugees in Bangladesh: still no durable solution. III. Discrimination in Arakan. https://www.hrw.org/reports/2000/burma/burm005-02.htm

Human Rights Watch. (2007). Crackdown: Repression of the 2007 Popular Protests in Burma. New York.

Human Rights Watch. (2013, April 22). “All You Can Do is Pray” Crimes Against Humanity and Ethnic Cleansing of Rohingya Muslims in Burma’s Arakan State. Human Rights Watch. https://www.hrw.org/report/2013/04/22/all-you-can-do-pray/crimes-against-humanity-and-ethnic-cleansing-rohingya-muslims

Human Rights Watch. (2015, May 16). Burma: Reject Discriminatory Population Bill. ‘Race and Religion’ Laws Could Herald New Repression, Violence. Human Rights Watch. https://www.hrw.org/news/2015/05/16/burma-reject-discriminatory-population-bill

Ibrahim, A. (2016). The Rohingyas. Inside Myanmar’s genocide. C. Hurst & Co. (Publishers) Ltd.

Ibrahim, H., & Nordin, R. (2015). The Principle of Responsibility to Protect: The Case of Rohingya in Myanmar. Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities, 23(S), 1-19.

International Court of Justice. (2019, November 11). International Court of Justice. Application Instituting Proceedings and Request for Provisional Measures. Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (The Gambia v. Myanmar). https://www.icj-cij.org/public/files/case-related/178/178-20191111-APP-01-00-EN.pdf

International Court of Justice. (2020, January 23). International Court of Justice. Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (The Gambia v. Myanmar). Request for the indication of provisional measures. https://www.icj-cij.org/public/files/case-related/178/178-20200123-SUM-01-00-EN.pdf

International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda - Chamber I. (1998, September 2). United Nations. International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals. AKAYESU, Jean Paul (ICTR-96-4). https://ucr.irmct.org/scasedocs/case/ICTR-96-04#eng

International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. (2006, September 27). Case: IT-00- 39-T. International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991. https://www.icty.org/x/cases/krajisnik/tjug/en/kra-jud060927e.pdf

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. (2011, May 3). Myanmar: Cyclone Nargis 2008 Facts and Figures. IFRC. https://www.ifrc.org/en/news-and-media/news-stories/asia-pacific/myanmar/myanmar-cyclone-nargis-2008-facts-and-figures/

Junk, J. (2015). Testing Boundaries: Cyclone Nargis in Myanmar and the Scope of R2P. Global Society, 30(1), 78-93. https://doi.org/10.1080/13600826.2015.1092423

Keyes, C. (2016). Theravada Buddhism and Buddhist Nationalism: Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Cambodia and Thailand. The Review of Faith and International Affairs, 14(4), 41-52. https://doi.org/10.1080/15570274.2016.1248497

Khin, T. (2022, February 1). Aljazeera. Retrieved from Justice is the only answer to Myanmar’s bloody military reign. https://www.aljazeera.com/opinions/2022/2/1/justice-is-the-only-answer-to-myanmars-bloody-military-reign

Lindblom, A., Marsh, E., Munyan, K., & Motala, T. (2015). Persecution of the Rohingya Muslims: Is Genocide Occurring in Myanmar’s Rakhine State? A Legal Analysis. Allard K. Lowenstein International Human Rights Clinic, Yale Law School for Fortify Rights.

Lone, W., Lewis, S., & Slodk, A. (2018, February). Massacre in Myanmar. Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/myanmar-rakhine-events/

McGowan, W. (2012, September 3). Burma’s Buddhist Chauvinism: Violence against the Rohingya reveals a deep-rooted xenophobia. Wall Street Journal. https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10000872396390443847404577628874147528692

Mironova, V., & Sergatskova, E. (2017, September 22). Explore Account Will Former ISIS Fighters Help the Rohingya? Why Calls for a New Jihad Are Falling on Deaf Ears. Foreign Affairs. https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/burma-myanmar/2017-09-22/will-former-isis-fighters-help-rohingya

Mukherjee, K. (2019). The Ethnic Minority Question and Rohingya Crisis in Contemporary Myanmar. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 39(1), 26-43. https://doi.org/10.1080/13602004.2019.1575021

OXFAM International. (2009, April 29). Myanmar continúa devastada un año después del paso del ciclón Nargis. https://www.oxfam.org/es/notas-prensa/myanmar-continua-devastada-un-ano-despues-del-paso-del-ciclon-nargis

Parsons, C. (2008, May 7). France urges U.N. council to act on Myanmar cyclone. Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/idUSL07810481

Radzi, A. (2019). The Non-Participation of ASEAN Countries in the International Criminal Court: a Constructivist Perspective (Master‘s Thesis). Hacettepe University Graduate School of Social Sciences Department of International Relations, Ankara.

Rael, A. (2021). The International Court of Justice’s First Binding Decision to Hold Myanmar Accountable for Committing Genocidal Acts Against the Rohingya Group. Tulane Journal of International and Comparative Law, 29, 377-390.

Routray, B. P. (2020, Spring). The Rohingya Crisis: Refugees and Human Trafficking Networks. Turkish Policy Quarterly, 19(1), 85-91.

Rum, M. (2020, January). The State of Responsibility to Protect Inception in ASEAN Regionalism. The Indonesian Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 3(2), 143-155. https://doi.org/10.22146/ikat.v3i2.50317

Rushing, E. J. (2017, September). How Many Internally Displaced Rohingya Are Trapped Inside Myanmar? Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre. https://www.internal-displacement.org/expert-opinion/how-many-internally-displaced-rohingya-are-trapped-inside-myanmar

Sakib, N. (2020, November 24). Rohingya: Gambia files case against Myanmar at ICJ Activists, Bangladesh welcome move as Myanmar urged to comply with orders of international court. Anadolu Agency. https://www.aa.com.tr/en/asia-pacific/rohingya-gambia-files-case-against-myanmar-at-icj/2017828

Seekins, D. M. (2008, May 3). The Social, Political and Humanitarian Impact of Burma’s Cyclone Nargis. The Asia-Pacific Journal, 6(5).

Southwick, K. (2018). Straining to Prevent the Rohingya Genocide: A Sociology of Law Perspective. Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal (GSP), 12(3), 119- 142. https://doi.org/10.5038/1911-9933.12.3.1572

Steinberg, D. I. (2001). Burma: The State of Myanmar. Georgetown University Press.

Strangio, S. (2021, February 2). Myanmar’s Coup Was a Chronicle Foretold The Military Brass Never Relinquished Control. Foreign Affairs. https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/china/2021-02-01/myanmars-coup-was-chronicle-foretold

Tallentire, M. (2007, September 28). The Burma road to ruin. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2007/sep/28/burma.uk

Tewson, M. (2016). The Process of Decolonization in Burma: Managing the Transition from Colony to Independent State. Northumbria University, 1-47.

The Constitution of the Union of Burma. (1947). https://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/79573/85699/F1436085708/MMR79573.pdf

Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2018). Anawrahta. King of Myanmar. Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Anawrahta

Union of Myanmar. (2008). Constitution of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Myanmar_2008.pdf?lang=en

United Nations. (1948, December 9). Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.

United Nations. (1993, February 10). Security Council. S/25274. https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N94/200/60/PDF/N9420060.pdf?OpenElement

United Nations. (2017, September 11). UN human rights chief points to ‘textbook example of ethnic cleansing’ in Myanmar. UN News. https://news.un.org/en/story/2017/09/564622-un-human-rights-chief-points-textbook-example-ethnic-cleansing-myanmar

United Nations. (2018, September 18). United Nations. UN Fact-Finding Mission releases its full account of massive violations by military in Rakhine, Kachin and Shan States. https://www.ohchr.org/en/press-releases/2018/09/myanmar-un-fact-finding-mission-releases-its-full-account-massive-violations

Wade, F. (2019). Myanmar’s enemy within. Buddhist violence and the making of a Muslim ‘other’. Zed Books Ltd. http://dx.doi.org/10.5040/9781350297951

Wallace, B., Kramer, S. K., & Richman, J. (2013, August 8). As Myanmar Opens Up, A Look Back On A 1988 Uprising. npr. https://www.npr.org/2013/08/08/209919791/as-myanmar-opens-up-a-look-back-on-a-1988-uprising?t=1623696362278

Westcott , B., & George, S. (2017, September 13). Buddha would have helped persecuted Rohingya refugees, Dalai Lama says. CNN. https://edition.cnn.com/2017/09/11/asia/rohingya-dalai-lama-myanmar/index.html

Publicado
2022-07-20
Cómo citar
Romero Garrido, C. (2022). El genocidio patrocinado por el Estado de la comunidad Rohingya desde una perspectiva constructivista. Comillas Journal of International Relations, (24), 52-70. https://doi.org/10.14422/cir.i24.y2022.004
Sección
Artículos