Programas de integración para inmigrantes: Una perspectiva comparada en la unión europea

Sergio Carrera

Resumen


Este artículo ofrece un estudio comparado sobre las políticas y estrategias relativas a «la integración de inmigrantes» en Alemania, Austria, Bélgica, Dinamarca, España, Francia, Holanda, Letonia y Polonia. Tras exponer brevemente los modelos tradicionales de integración de inmigrantes, se analizan las tendencias generales experimentadas por los programas de integración en estos países, prestando especial atención al contenido y destinatarios de estos programas, y a los mecanismos ejecutorios destinados a garantizar su cumplimiento. Como veremos, se está experimentando una tendencia incipiente hacia un entendimiento y puesta en práctica de «la integración social de inmigrantes» como una condición jurídica obligatoria para que los colectivos cultural y étnicamente diferenciados sean «globalmente incluidos» en la sociedad receptora y en el conjunto de la nación. La participación vinculante en los programas de integración constituye un ingrediente esencial del marco jurídico de inmigración, y un requisito clave para que los inmigrantes puedan tener acceso a un «estatuto jurídico seguro». Existe un «nexo» entre las dimensiones de la inmigración y la integración que puede hacer peligrar el ínterculturalismo y la diversidad que son propias de la naturaleza misma de la UE.


Palabras clave


Inclusión Social; Interculturalismo; Diversidad; Programas de Integración

Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


ANDERSEN, S.; HEINESEN, E., and Husted, L. (2005): Benchmarking Analysisof Danish Municipalities’ Integration Policies in the Period 1999-2002, The Danish Ministry of Refugee, Immigration and Integration Affairs, Copenhagen (disponible en http://www.inm.dk).

ARANGO, J. (2002): «¿De qué hablamos cuando hablamos de multiculturalismo?», Diario El País, 23 de marzo de 2002.

ARANGO, J., and SANDELL, R. (2004): «Inmigración: Prioridades para una Nueva Política Española», Informes Elcano, Real Instituto Elcano de Estudios Internacionales y Estratégicos, Madrid.

BAALEN, I. VAN, and COUMOU, W. (2004): Denkend aan Holland: Een programma Maastschappij-oriëntatie voor nieuwkomers, Utrecht: Nederlands Centrum Buitenlanders.

BALIBAR, E. (2004): We, the People of Europe, Reflections on Transnational Citizenship, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

BALZACQ, T., and Carrera, S. (2005): The EU’s fight against international terrorism: Security problems, insecure solutions, CEPS Policy Brief, n.º 80, CEPS, Brussels, July.

BAUBÖCK, R. (2004): «Civic Citizenship - A New Concept for the New Europe», in SÜSSMUTH, R., and WEIDENFELD, W. (Eds.): Managing Integration: European Union Responsibilities towards Immigrants, Bertelsmann Foundation, Brussels, pp. 146-63.

BERTOSSI, C. (2004): «Politics and Policies of French Citizenship, Ethnic Minorities and the European Agenda», in GÓRNY, A., and RUSPINI, P. (Eds.): Migration in the New Europe; East-West Revisited, Basingstoke: Palgrave.

BESSELINK, L. F. M. (2005): Inburgering, gelijke behandeling en verblijfsrecht van vreemdelingen in Nederland, Staats-en Bestuursrecht, Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid, University of Utrecht (disponible en www.libertysecurity.org).

BIGO, D. (1994): «The European internal security field stakes and rivalries in a newly developing area of police intervention», in ANDERSON, M., and DEN BOER, M. (Eds.): Policing across National Boundaries, London: Pinter, p. 164.

BIGO, D., and CARRERA, S. (2004): From New York to Madrid: Technology as the ultra-solution to the permanent state of fear and emergency in the EU, CEPS Commentary, CEPS, Brussels, April.

BONINO COVAS, C.; ARAGÓN MEDINA, J., y ROCHA SÁNCHEZ, F. (2003): Los Planes de las Comunidades Autónomas para la Integración Social de las Personas Inmigrantes, Confederación Sindical de Comisiones Obreras,

CC.OO., Estudio realizado por la Fundación 1.° de Mayo en colaboración con la Secretaría Confederal de Migraciones de Comisiones Obreras, Paralelo Edición, Madrid.

BROUWER, E., CATZ, P., and GUILD, E. (2003): Immigration, Asylum and Terrorism: A Changing Dynamic in European Law, Instituut voor Rechtssociologie/Centrum voor Migratierecht, University of Nijmegen.

BRUBAKER, R. (2004): «The Return to Assimilation? Changing Perspectives on Immigration and its Sequels in France, Germany and the United States», in JOPPKE, C., and MORAWSKA, E. (Eds.): Toward Assimilation and Citizenship: Immigrants in Liberal Nation States, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 39-58.

CARRERA, S. (2006): «Integration of Immigrants versus Social Inclusion: A Typology of Integration Programmes in the EU», in BALZACQ, T., and CARRERA, S. (Eds.): Security versus Freedom: A Challenge for Europe’s Future, Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing (en prensa).

CARRERA, S. (2006): «A Comparison of Integration Programmes in the EU: Trends and Vulnerabilities», CHALLENGE Paper n.º 1, March 2006, Centre for European Policy Studies, Brussels (disponible en www.ceps.be).

CARRERA, S. (Ed.) (2006): «The Nexus between Immigration, Integration and Citizenship in the EU», CHALLENGE Collective Conference Volume, Centre for European Policy Studies, CEPS: Brussels, April 2006.

CARRERA, S. (2005): «Integration as a Process of Inclusion for Migrants? The Case of Long-term Residents in the EU», in SCHNEIDER, H. (Ed.): Migration, Integration and Citizenship: A Challenge for Europe’s Future,, Forum Maastricht, Maastricht University, pp. 109-38.

CARRERA, S., and BALZACQ, T. (2005): Migration, Borders and Asylum: Trends and Vulnerabilities in EU Policy, CEPS, Brussels.

CARRERA, S., and FORMISANO, M. (2005): «An EU Approach to Labour Migration: What is the Added Value and the Way Ahead?», CEPS Working Document n.º 232, CEPS, Brussels, October.

CHOLEWINSKI, R. (2005): «Migrants as Minorities», Journal of Common Market Studies, vol. 43, n.º 4, November, pp. 695-716.

CYRUS, N., and VOGEL, D. (2005): «Germany», in NIESSEN, J.; SCHIBEL, Y., and THOMPSON, C. (Eds): Current Immigration Debates in Europe: A Publication of the European Migration Dialogue, Migration Policy Group, Brussels.

DAVY, U. (2005): «Integration of Immigrants in Germany: A Slowly Evolving Concept», European Journal of Migration and Law, vol. 7, n.º 2, pp. 123-44.

ENTZINGER, H., and BIEZEVELD, R. (2003): Benchmarking in Immigration Integration, European Research Centre on Migration and Ethnic Relations, Erasmus University of Rotterdam, August.

ERZAN, R., and KIRISÇI, K. (2004): Turkish Immigrants: Their Integration within the EU and Migration to Turkey, Turkish Policy Quarterly, pp. 61-68.

EUROPEAN MIGRATION NETWORK, NATIONAL CONTACT POINT AUSTRIA (2005): «The Impact of Immigration on Austria’s Society: A Survey of Recent Austrian Migration Research», in BERLIN INSTITUTE FOR COMPARATIVE SOCIAL RESEARCH (BIVS) (Eds.): The Impact of Immigration on Europe’s Society: A Pilot Research Study undertaken by the European Migration Network, BIVS, Berlin.

FAVELL, A. (1998): Philosophies of Integration: Immigration and the Idea of Citizenship in France and Britain, London, Macmillan, 1998.

FERMIN, A. (2001): The Justification of Mandatory Integration Programmes for New Immigrants, Summary of the Dutch Report «Verplichte inburgering van nieuwkomers», European Research Centre on Migration and Ethnic Relations, University of Utrecht.

FOBLETS, M. C.; HUBEAU, B., and VANHEULE, D. (2003): De tewerkstelling en het verblijf in België van vreemdelingen: vandaag en morgen, Brugge: De Keure.

GEDDES, A. (2005): «Europe’s Border Relationships and International Migration Relations», Journal of Common Market Studies, vol. 43, n.º 4, pp. 787-806.

GROENENDIJK, K. (2004): «Legal Concepts of Integration in EU Migration Law», European Journal of Migration and Law, vol. 6, n.º 2, pp. 111-26.

GSIR, S.; MARTINIELLO, M.; MEIREMAN, K., and WETS, J. (2005): «Belgium», in NIESSEN, J.; SCHIBEL, Y., and THOMPSON, C. (Eds): Current Immigration Debates in Europe: A Publication of the European Migration Dialogue, Migration Policy Group, Brussels, September.

GUILD, E. (2005): «Cultural and Identity Security: Immigrants and the Legal Expression of National Identity», in GUILD, E., and VAN SELM, J. (Eds.): International Migration and Security: Opportunities and Challenges, New York: Routledge Research in Transnationalism, Routledge.

HAMILTON, K.; SIMON, P., and VENIARD, C. (2004): «The Challenge of French Diversity», Migration Information Source, Migration Policy Institute, Washington, D.C. (disponible en

http://www.migrationinformatiom.com).

HANSEN, R. (2004): «Migration to Europe since 1945: Its History and its Lessons», in SPENCER, S. (Ed.): The Politics of Migration: Managing Opportunity, Conflict and Change, Blackwell Publishing, pp. 25-38.

IGLICKA, K.; KAZMIERKIEWICZ, P., and WEINAR, A. (2005): «Poland», in NIESSEN, J.; SCHIBEL, Y., and THOMPSON, C. (Eds.): Current Immigration Debates in Europe: A Publication of the European Migration Dialogue, Migration Policy Group, Brussels.

INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR MIGRATION POLICY DEVELOPMENT (ICMPD) (2005): Integration Agreements and Voluntary Measures: Compulsory or Voluntary Nature-Comparison of Compulsory Integration Courses, Programmes and Agreements and Voluntary Integration Programmes and Measures in Austria, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Switzerland, ICMPD, Vienna, May.

JOPPKE, C., and MORAWSKA, E. (2003): «Integrating Immigrants in Liberal Nation-States: Policies and Practices», in JOPPKE, C., and MORAWSKA, E. (Eds.): Toward Assimilation and Citizenship: Immigrants in Liberal Nation-States, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

KÖNIG, K., and PERCHINIG, B. (2005): «Austria», in NIESSEN, J.; SCHIBEL, Y., and THOMPSON, C. (Eds.): Current Immigration Debates in Europe: A Publication of the European Migration Dialogue, Migration Policy Group, Brussels.

KOSTAKOPOULOU, T. (2002): «Integrating non-EU migrants in the European Union: Ambivalent legacies and mutating paradigms», The Columbia Journal of European Law, vol. 8, n.º 2, pp. 181-201.

MARINELLI, V. (2005): «The Netherlands», in NIESSEN, J.; SCHIBEL, Y., and THOMPSON, C. (Eds.): Current Immigration Debates in Europe: A Publication of the European Migration Dialogue, Migration Policy Group, Brussels.

MARTINIELLO, M., and REA, A. (2003): Belgium’s Immigration Policy Brings Renewal and Challenges. Migration Information Source, Migration Policy Institute, Washington, D.C. (disponible en http://www.migrationinformatiom.com).

MARTINIELLO, M.; FOBLETS, M. C.; PARMENTIER, S.; VERVAEKE, G.; DJAIT, B., and KAGNÉ, B. (2004): Les populations d’origine immigrée face au droit en Belgique, Ghent: Academia Press, Politique Scientifique fédérale, Série «Problèmes actuels concernant la cohésion sociale».

MICHALOWSKI, I. (2004a): «An Overview on Introduction Programmes for Immigrants in Seven European Member States», Adviescommissie voor Vreemdelingenzaken, The Hague.

— (2004b): «Integration Programmes for Newcomers - A Dutch model for Europe?», in BÖCKER, A.; DE HART, B., and

MICHALOWSKI, I.: Migration and the Regulation of Social Integration, IMIS-Beiträge Special Issue, n.º 24, IMIS, Universität Osnabrück.

MONTILLA MARTOS, J. A. (2006): «Inmigración y Comunidades Autónomas», en AJA, E., y ARANGO, J. (Eds.): Veinte Años de Inmigración en España: Perspectivas Jurídica y Sociológica (1985-2004), Fundación CIDOB, Barcelona.

PAJARES, M. (2006): «Las políticas locales en el ámbito de la inmigración», en AJA, E., y ARANGO, J. (Eds.): Veinte Años de Inmigración en España: Perspectivas Jurídica y Sociológica (1985-2004), Fundació CIDOB, Barcelona.

— (2005): La Integración Ciudadana: Una Perspectiva para la Inmigración, Barcelona, Icaria Antrazyt.

PASTORE, F. (2004): «Visas, Borders, Immigration: Formation, Structure and Current Evolution of the EU Entry Control System», in Walker, N. (Ed.): Europe’s Area of Freedom, Security and Justice, Academy of European Law, European University Institute, Oxford, Oxford University Press.

PEERS, S. (2004): «New Minorities: What Status for Third-Country Nationals in the EU System?», in TOGGENBURG, G. N. (Ed.): Minority Protection and the Enlarged European Union: The Way Forward, Local Government and Public Service Reform Initiative/Open Society Institute, Budapest.

PENNINX, R. (2004): «Integration of Migrants: Economic, Social, Cultural and Political Dimensions», Background paper for the UNECE Conference, 12-14 January 2004, Geneva.

PENNINX, R.; KRAAL, K.; MARTINIELLO, M., and VERTOVEC, S. (Eds.) (2004): Citizenship in European Cities: Immigrants, Local Politics and Integration Policies, Aldershot/Burlington, VT: Ashgate.

PÉREZ-DÍAZ, V.; ÁLVAREZ-MIRANDA, B., and GONZÁLEZ-ENRÍQUEZ, C. (2001): España ante la Inmigración, Barcelona: la Caixa.

SCHMIDT, D. (2004): «The New German Immigration Law», in APAP, J. (Ed.): Justice and Home Affairs in the EU: Liberty and Security Issues after Enlargement, Edward Elgar: Cheltenham, UK, pp. 225-258.

SELM, J. van (2005): The Netherlands: Death of a Filmmaker Shakes a Nation, Migration Information Source, Migration Policy Institute, Washington, D.C. (disponible en http://www.migrationifnormation.org).

SERRA, A.; MAS, P.; XALABARDER, A., and PINYOL, G. (2005): «Spain», in NIESSEN, J.; SCHIBEL, Y., and THOMPSON, C. (Eds.): Current Immigration Debates in Europe: A Publication of the European Migration Dialogue, Migration Policy Group, Brussels.

SÜSSMUTH, R., and WEIDENFELD, W. (Eds.) (2005): Managing Integration: The European Union’s Responsibilities towards Immigrants, Migration Policy Institute and Bertelsmann Foundation, Brussels.

URTH, H. (2005): «Building a Momentum for the Integration of ThirdCountry Nationals in the European Union», European Journal of Migration and Law, vol. 7, n.º 2, pp. 163-80.

WENDEN, C. DE (2005): «Conceptual and political approaches to integration: The French perspective», in SÜSSMUTH, R., and WEIDENFELD, W. (Eds.): Managing Integration: The European Union’s Responsibilities towards Immigrants, Migration Policy Institute, Washington, D.C. and Bertelsmann Foundation, Brussels.


Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.




Licencia Creative Commons
Migraciones (ISSN digital: 2341-0833) editada por Universidad Pontificia Comillas se encuentra bajo una Licencia Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 3.0 Unported

Migraciones

Instituto Universitario de Estudios sobre Migraciones

Alberto Aguilera, 23, 28014 Madrid

Tel. +34 91 542 28 00 | E-mail: revista.migraciones@comillas.edu